I have chosen not to go to University after completing this course because I have been in education for sixteen years and just want to do something different. But I did consider going and looked at several courses, here is three courses I looked at.
The three university courses I looked at are from Bournemouth University, University of the Arts London and Bath Spa University. The courses are BA (Hons) Computer Animation Art and Design (Bournemouth), BA (HONS) ANIMATION (University of the Arts London) and Code, create, design and collaborate in our innovative Creative Computing (Animation) course (Bath Spa University). The reason I chose to look at these three courses is because I want to work in the animation industry. I personally would try to get in Bournemouth University course because I have been told that Bournemouth has the best animation course and facilities in the country.
The Traditional methods of progression are apprenticeships, internships, applying directly to the company and applying through an agency. Apprenticeships and Internships are ways to learn and gain experience in a field while working in that field. The difference being apprenticeships are more towards people who want to learn new skills and internships are generally more short term work experiences. You would apply directly to a company or through an agency if you are mainly looking for job.
For the near future I would like to do an apprenticeship in animation but there are no apprenticeships in that field but there are a lot in media though. If I had to do an apprenticeship, I will try to get one in the media area. When I search for apprenticeships I mainly get ones in social media or digital marketing. I will most likely apply for one in social media if I had to because I have more interest in that field than marketing. It would also help me develop useful skills that I might be lacking to get my name out there and to advertise myself.
The non-traditional routes are competitions, social media, networking and cold calling. These routes you put your name out there and make the jobs come to you. Competitions are a good way to get your name out there and gain experience in a competitive environment. Social media like twitter that use hashtags can be a useful way of getting your name out there as well. If you use the right hashtags you can be easily found and have an online presence. Networking can be done by or through university. University usually have connections and partnerships with companies, so you can communicate through them. Another way is through apprenticeships and internships, if you worked well with that company they might consider hiring you or recommending you to another company. Cold calling is where you contact a company and convince them that they need you. This can be linked with networking where you gain contacts and convince them to hire you.
This task was set to make us evaluate what are our strengths for our future and make them into employable skills. The task makes us think about what is our best career path for our skills and personality.
To see what personality type I have I went on a website call 16Personalities (https://www.16personalities.com/), on this website I was ask lots of different questions about how I would do things personally. The personality type I got INTJ, it is stated on the website “People with the INTJ personality type are imaginative yet decisive, ambitious yet private, amazingly curious, but they do not squander their energy.” The strengths listed on this personality type are; Quick, Imaginative and Strategic Mind, High Self-Confidence, Independent and Decisive, Hard-working and determined, Open-minded and Jacks-of-all-Trades. I feel these are sort of true, I like to make sure what I am doing and if it is correct so I will ask to make sure. This might come off as not independent but I just like to know what I am doing. I think the best way to describe this is robotic, it is stated people who have this personality tend to put logic forward over instinct and people who are this personality type have difficulty to understand emotions. The website states “The very notion of emotional expression is synonymous with irrationality and weakness to many INTJs, a display of poor self-governance and fleeting opinion that can hardly stand up to the enduring light of factual truth.” I can understand why people can get emotional but I think they should not affect your work/put your work first within reason. I think this will be good personality type for work because I will most likely put my work in front of myself.
I hope to become a 2D animator either hand drawn or computer. The obvious skills needed to be animator are drawing and time management. But I will also need good observational skills, communicational skills, team working skills, organisation skills and independent. I feel I need to improve my drawing, observational and communication skills. With drawing I need to practice more. My problem with observational skills is I might miss something because I did not think it was important. I could put more effort in monitoring my work and what I am doing.
This is my career timeline starting from when I finish my college course and hope to work on/do in the upcoming years after.
Unit 12 Final Analysis Report
In this report, I will be writing about the Unit 12 work I did last term. Unit 12 is a research based unit with experimentation as a key part of the unit at the end. We covered our interests and what we knew about them, our personalities types, interviewing our peers, how to conduct specific research, useful tools for research, experiment in our specialist area with a specific subject and research specific influences. All this was to find out our specialist area for our Final Major Project. I found out my specialist area is animation, more specifically similar to traditional Disney style and Japanese animation. I found out I want to explore the differences between Western styles of animation and Eastern styles of animation.
Week 1- Who Am I
Week one Unit 12 task was “Who Am I”, I created a mind map that shows what I am interested in. This may include things I enjoy playing, watching or listening to and even have an interest in. I then created a list about what I knew about these interests. What I found out about myself is I have more interests in the area of film and television and I also know more in that area as well. So by doing this task I found out I am more interested in film and television than games and music, though I enjoy them equally. I also found out by doing this task I am more interested in animation than live action films and television programs. When I was reflecting on my work I discovered I enjoyed the old Disney style and Japanese Animation animated films. I also learnt that mind maps can be used as effective way of gathering information and presenting it to someone. A mind map is clearer than a list and has pathways for the reader to follow instead of a just reading it in the order it was written in.
Week 2- Interviewing Peers, Myers Briggs Personality Test
The purpose of the interviews was to gather an understanding of what our specialist area. The other thing this task did is to make us think what we want to do for our Final Major Project and what we want to do after we finished this course. We interviewed and got interviewed by a member of another course. This was so we would develop unbiased question, if we interviewed someone we knew we would develop question geared towards people we knew. But the primary function of this task was to practice interviews as a research tool and to research into ourselves and what we like to do for our Final Major Project.
We had to plan out our interviews by thinking of questions that would get specific answer that allow us to give feedback that we developed from their answers. By doing this, it prepares us for scenarios in the future where we might be interviewing people for work or research. While interviewing, we had to ask questions that would help our interviewee break down what they would like to do for their Final Major Project and what they would like to do after this course, go to university or get a job in their specialist area. We also learnt how to conduct interviews as a source of primary research, instead of relying on secondary sources we find online and in books.
Myers-Briggs Personality Test task was to gather a better understanding in what we want to do in life and what we are like as a person. This was so we know our thought process when making decisions and producing work. We did this task to find out what type of personality we are to help us develop what we want to do for our Final Major Project. We had to do the personality test once for ourselves and once again for someone else and then give them that result (https://www.16personalities.com/). The first test was to see what we think we are like as a person then the second test is what someone else thinks what you are like. The test I was done said I was the Architect (INTJ-T). The result stated I am Introverted Intuitive Thinking, Judging and Turbulent. When reading up on these traits I found that I agree with about half of what it says about this personality but the personality my peer took I found out contains the other half I agree with. My peer got me the Logistician (ISTJ-T), the traits are Introverted, Observant, Thinking, Judging and Turbulent. The only difference I found in these traits is I got Intuitive while my peer got observant. By doing this task I found out if I combine the results of the Architect and Logistician together you get my personality.
How my personality can affect my Final Major Project and anything I do after the course is down to stubbornness. When reflecting on this work I thought if I have an idea but I do it wrong, I will find it difficult to work with it and not change my mind about it (I will view as wrong). But with stubbornness it can affect my work positively as well, normally when I start something I am interested in or put time into, I must finish it. Another thing that could affect my work with my personality is I might have difficulty doing it if I do not see the logic of doing it. If it’s just because for the sake of doing it, I cannot get motivated to do it. But if I get into the habit of questioning what went wrong I might be able to improve what went wrong or find a use of it. The question I could ask myself when something goes wrong or not how I want it include; What is the problem, how did it happen, what are the solutions and what are the alternatives? The last question means what alternative method I could have used and what alternative use I could have for a piece of work.
Week 3- How to research
The purpose of the tasks this week is to understand how to gather specific and narrow down research instead of a gather information in a specific area. We first learnt how to narrow down our search results on a search engine like Google. We learnt you can use symbols like * (this can be used a placeholder for a word if you can not think of one) in search that can narrow down a search. We also learnt how to break down information from a documentary and how to present the information clearly on a mind map. This can help me by allowing me to research tutorials on drawing certain body parts and scenery. As well, I can use the knowledge of presenting the information clearly to help looking at influences and using the information for help. We also learnt how to research in groups, how to break down research question down and hand them out to a team. This can be useful to us because in the media industry we are most likely working in teams instead of on our own.
Week 4 and 5- Experiment
Week four and five tasks were to experiment in our chosen disciplines. We first had to look up examples of fear in our chosen areas, so I looked up fear in animation. I chose three examples, two western animations and one eastern animation. When I broke them down I found out that different cultures use similar techniques to do the same thing. The most common thing I found out is they add a dark overlay to influence the lighting of the scene and put emphasis on the theme. Another thing I found out is the art style also changes to make things scarier or make people feel any emotion. Sometimes scary things in animation have a more realistic art style to connect with the audience. I then looked at how emotions are shown in animation other than through character facial expressions. I looked at similar things I looked at doing the fear task. They did similar things but as well I found out they used colour theory as well, using colours that are linked to specific emotions. In one of my example, they used two meanings for a colour from different cultures.
From what I learnt doing these tasks, I could use these methods I developed and learnt in my Final Major Project and in the future (for a hobby or as a job). I learnt the basics of Adobe Flash/Animate doing this but still shows I have a lot to learn like timing. I also left my experiment of an animation unfinished to show how long it can take to animate something.
Week 6-Practitioners Report
The Practitioners Report was research based report. We had to research at least one early practitioner and one modern practitioner, I chose to research two early practitioners (Walt Disney and Hayao Miyazaki) and two modern practitioners (Pixar and the recent work of Isao Takahata). The purpose of this task is to gain influences in our disciplines and see how they were influenced. I found out they were mostly influenced by other cultures and travelling, for example Hayao Miyazaki was influenced by his touring around Europe. A lot of the inspirations of the practitioners were from other cultures. For influences I can look into stories and history of other countries. I also developed my skills in presenting information from research clearly and neatly.
I can use the information I gathered while doing this task for influences and a guide to plan on getting more. I could do the same thing Hayao Miyazaki and travel or see new places for influence. A lot of Disney’s work are based on things from Germany. I can look into other cultures and their fairy tales to use as writing influences or as stories for an animation.
By doing Unit 12, I learnt a range of new research skills and presentation skills. I learnt how to clearly present information on mind maps and infographics. Mind maps are useful if you have information that is linked together or you want to read it in a specific order. Infographics are a good way to present large amounts of information from research because you can use pictures in then to help visualise the information instead of having blocks of text. I also found out new research techniques. I learnt how to use research tools on a search engine like Google, symbols can be used to narrow down a search result and Google has an educational service called Google Scholar that has only academic papers and sources, we can use these for sources or source finding because they will note down where they got their information on the works. I learnt a lot of things when doing the research tasks. When doing the practitioners report, I learnt a lot about possible influences like Walt Disney, Pixar, Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata. When researching Walt Disney I learnt he had some failed attempts before doing what he is famous for. He started off creating things he called Laugh-o-Grams but his company at the time became bankrupt. From Walt Disney’s many tries of being an animator, I can learn that you need to keep trying to succeed. Hayao Miyazaki got his influences from travelling across Europe, for example, Laputa Castle in the Sky is based on his experiences in the United Kingdom. I have also learnt new techniques and processes while experimenting. I learnt how to basically use Adobe Flash/Animate and tried out new drawing methods as well. I did find it difficult because it did not go how I wanted it to.
- Anon, (1963). Miyazaki, Hayao. [online] Available at: http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/literature-and-arts/film-and-television-biographies/hayao-miyazaki [Accessed 21 Feb. 2017].
- Anon, (2013). The history of Pixar animation studios. [online] Available at: http://pixar-animation.weebly.com/journal/the-history-of-pixar-animation-studios [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017].
- Anon, (n.d.). Who is Walt Disney? Everything you need to know. [online] Available at: http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/walter-elias-disney-3151.php [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017].
- Castle in the sky. (1986). [Video] Japan: Toei Company.
- Disney, J. (2017). Walt Disney A short biography. [online] Available at: http://www.justdisney.com/walt_disney/biography/w_bio_short.html [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017].
- Grave of the Fireflies. (1988). [Video] Japan: Toho.
- com, (2009). Disney releases snow white and the Seven dwarfs. [online] Available at: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/disney-releases-snow-white-and-the-seven-dwarfs [Accessed 1 Mar. 2017].
- com, (2009). Disney releases snow white and the Seven dwarfs. history.com. [online] Available at: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/disney-releases-snow-white-and-the-seven-dwarfs [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017].
- Kamen, M. (2017). Studio Ghibli’s Isao Takahata on animating his final film. [online] Available at: http://www.wired.co.uk/article/isao-takahata-interview [Accessed 21 Feb. 2017].
- Pixar, 2. (1986). Pixar. [online] Available at: http://www.pixar.com/about/Our-Story [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017].
- Snow white and the Seven dwarfs. (1937). [Video] USA.
- Spirited away. (2001). [DVD] Japan.
- The tale of the Princess Kaguya. (2013). [DVD] Japan: Tōhō.
- Toy story. (1995). [Trailer] USA: The Walt Disney Company.
- Walt Disney animation studios’ steamboat Willie. (1928). [Video] USA: Celebrity Productions Cinephone.
- Anon, (2009). Cultural color. [online] Available at: http://www.empower-yourself-with-color-psychology.com/cultural-color.html [Accessed 25 Jan. 2017].
- Anon, (2016). Different Tropes Anime uses to express emotion. [online] Available at: https://myanimelist.net/featured/1324/Different_Tropes_Anime_Uses_to_Express_Emotion [Accessed 24 Jan. 2017].
- Cabral, C. (2013). Cartoon fundamentals: Create emotions from simple changes in the face. [online] Available at: https://design.tutsplus.com/articles/cartoon-fundamentals-create-emotions-from-simple-changes-in-the-face–vector-16278 [Accessed 24 Jan. 2017].
- Staff, C. (2015). 12 colours and the emotions they evoke. 12 colours and the emotions they evoke, [online] pp.1-2. Available at: http://www.creativebloq.com/web-design/12-colours-and-emotions-they-evoke-61515112/2 [Accessed 25 Jan. 2017].
- Staff, C. (2015). 12 colours and the emotions they evoke. 12 colours and the emotions they evoke, [online] pp.1-2. Available at: http://www.creativebloq.com/web-design/12-colours-and-emotions-they-evoke-61515112 [Accessed 25 Jan. 2017].
- Night on bald mountain – fantasia (1941) (theatrical cut). (2014). YouTube.
- Sheridan, S. (2004). Peachpit. [online] Available at: http://www.peachpit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=174318&seqNum=3 [Accessed 23 Jan. 2017].
- Time, (2014). The 100 best animated movies: By type. [online] Available at: https://www.timeout.com/newyork/film/the-100-best-animated-movies-by-type [Accessed 23 Jan. 2017].
This week we continued on with the work we did in previous weeks. But looked at four practitioners, two early and contemporary practitioners. The early practitioners were Walt Disney (the actual person) and the early works of Hayao Miyazaki. My contemporary practitioners are Pixar and Isao Takahata, primarily his latest work “The Tale of Princess Kaguya”. I focused on this piece because it is Takahata most recent director’s role. I researched into these practitioners past works and modern works and created a timeline/infographic that presents the information clearly.
Anon, (1963). Miyazaki, Hayao. [online] Available at: http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/literature-and-arts/film-and-television-biographies/hayao-miyazaki [Accessed 21 Feb. 2017].
Anon, (2013). The history of Pixar animation studios. [online] Available at: http://pixar-animation.weebly.com/journal/the-history-of-pixar-animation-studios [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017].
Anon, (n.d.). Who is Walt Disney? Everything you need to know. [online] Available at: http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/walter-elias-disney-3151.php [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017].
Castle in the sky. (1986). [Video] Japan: Toei Company.
Disney, J. (2017). Walt Disney A short biography. [online] Available at: http://www.justdisney.com/walt_disney/biography/w_bio_short.html [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017].
Grave of the Fireflies. (1988). [Video] Japan: Toho.
History.com (2009). Disney releases snow white and the Seven dwarfs. [online] Available at: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/disney-releases-snow-white-and-the-seven-dwarfs [Accessed 1 Mar. 2017].
History.com (2009). Disney releases snow white and the Seven dwarfs. history.com. [online] Available at: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/disney-releases-snow-white-and-the-seven-dwarfs [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017].
Kamen, M. (2017). Studio Ghibli’s Isao Takahata on animating his final film. [online] Available at: http://www.wired.co.uk/article/isao-takahata-interview [Accessed 21 Feb. 2017].
Pixar, 2. (1986). Pixar. [online] Available at: http://www.pixar.com/about/Our-Story [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017].
Snow white and the Seven dwarfs. (1937). [Video] USA.
Spirited away. (2001). [DVD] Japan.
The tale of the Princess Kaguya. (2013). [DVD] Japan: Tōhō.
Toy story. (1995). [Trailer] USA: The Walt Disney Company.
Walt Disney animation studios’ steamboat Willie. (1928). [Video] USA: Celebrity Productions Cinephone.
For this task, we had to experiment in our chosen field. We chose a field and we had to research a subject in that in that field. The subject we had to research in our chosen field is fear and my chosen field was animation. After we done the fear task we got to pick a different subject, I chose how emotions are shown in animation.
My chosen examples for fear were Fantasia, When They Cry and Scooby Doo Zombie Island. Fantasia is a Disney film from 1940, the plot follows multiple stories “The Sorcerer’s Apprentice”, which follows Micky Mouse as an ambitious sorcerer’s apprentice who oversteps his boundaries. The second story is “The Rite of Spring” which explains evolution. And the third story is called “Dance of the Hours” which is an orchestra performed by animals. I be looking at one of the darker story called “Night on Bald Mountain”. Night on Bald Mountain uses an orchestrated piece of the same name. The segment of the movie shows a gargoyle above a town, raising/summoning spirits. In this segment the dominant colour is black or dark navy blue. In horror films the dominant colours are dark to show fear and suspense. The scenes has a dark overlay as well to show fear and horror. Another thing in Night in Bald Mountain that shows fear is the choice of characters and their design. The gargoyle, for example has no facial features and predominantly black except for the bits that get exposed to what little light there is. This lack of knowledge of a character can actually back people fear it because of the fear of the unknown.
When They Cry
When They Cry is a Japanese animation directed by Chiaki Kon about a small town that is cursed that is killing people. The main focus on fear in this series is suspense, it keeps information away from the viewer, for example, it does not tell you or explain why people were being killed until the end of the series. With the example I gave, there are different things this show does to show fear with the characters and as a subject. With the two girls in the scene, to make the audience fear them their facial expression go playful like they are about to enjoy what they are about to do and the eyes start looking like cat’s eyes. Then the scene becomes quite dark as the boy tries to defend himself, the light in the room gets smashed while it is happening to make the scene go dark but as well by the looks, there is a black overlay on the scene as well to emphasise the fear, horror and shock of what is happening.
Scooby Doo Zombie Island
Scooby Doo Zombie Island is directed by Hiroshi Aoyama, Kazumi Fukushima and Jim Stenstrum. It is about Scooby Doo and his friends found separate careers but for Daphne’s birthday, Freddy invites everyone on a road trip. How this Scooby Doo movie is different to the over Scooby Doo movies and TV shows is the monsters are real. That’s what gives the movie it’s fear when it is Scooby Doo you expect it to be a person in a costume so it being real makes it unusual for a Scooby Doo. Another thing that made it scarier is the change in art style, Scooby Doo art style is really cartoony but this movie made the character design more realistic while keeping the similar character designs. This also allowed to make the characters facial expressions more recognisable for the audience, so people could see the fear that the characters have.
When experimenting, I could try to use all these methods to test how fear is represented or giving to the audience. I could change the lighting of the scene by adding dark overlays or by changing the colours of the characters of anything in the scene. And possibly changing the character designs as well, to see if things that look different can have an effect as well.
For this, I looked at the same things I did when looking at fear but not focusing on obvious ones like facial expressions and body language. I will be looking at colours and lighting of the scene as well as some other methods. My three examples are Lion King, Your Lie in April and Shelter (music video).
Lion King is a Disney film released in 1994, which is based on the Shakespeare play Hamlet. The scene I chose is Mufusa’s death scene because it is something you usually do not get in a children’s film. This scene starts off quite dark with dust from a bison stampede, this is to show the bad situation Mufusa is in. But when Scar says “Long live the king”, the scene gets darker as it zooms into Mufusa shocked faced as he hears that. The dark scene puts emphasis on the shocked face of Mufusa as he is thrown off the cliff. The same thing happens to Mufusa son Simba as it rapidly zooms into his face of shock. This proves the camera shot as well as the lighting of the scene, instead of just showing what happening you can use it to put more focus on something.
Shelter is a music video animated by A-1 Pictures and the music was created by Porter Robinson and Madeon. It tells the story of a girl who’s father put her in a virtual pod and sent her into space because the world is ending. How the video shows off emotions is through colour. When the girl was looking at the younger version of herself in a happy memory, the modern version of herself turns yellow. In Japan, yellow symbolises happiness and making her yellow symbolising this is a happy memory of her and her fathers. The video also becomes black and white when the girl starts to feel lonely. This was done to limit what things the audience can see because when someone is lonely they restricted so restricted the colours the audience can see makes them feel what the girl can see.
Shigatsu wa Kimi no Uso/Your Lie In April
Your Lie in April is a Japanese animation produced by A-1 Pictures which first aired in 2014. It is about a boy who lost his ability to play and hear his own music when his mother died but tries to regain his ability to play music. The scene I chose to look at is the end when the boy finally regains his ability to play music but his friend is in a life-saving surgery. The scene starts off quite blue symbolising everyday life, this shows the fight his friend has to go through every day to survive. But it as well is a sad scene as well (western meaning of blue is sad) because you find out later his friend does not survive. This scene uses two cultural meaning of colours to get its message across, Japanese meaning of blue and western the meaning of blue.
- How fear is presented in 2D animation?
- How can 2D animation represent fear?
I will explore how some 2D animation portrays fear in their animated sequences. The animated short/TV episode/movie does not need a horror genre, it just needs fear as an element in a sequence. For example, Spirited Away is not a horror film but it contains elements of fear by making the character fearful or suspense in a scene can make the audience feel fear as well.
- Graphics Tablet/mouse
- Scooby Doo Zombie Island
- When they Cry/Higurashi no Naku Koro ni
When They Cry
Emotions in Animation Research Project
How emotions are presented in animated films, television series and shorts.
Usually, when we portray emotions in real life we use body language and facial features. In animated sequences, you can portray emotion by changing the colour of a scene, colour of the character and background noise. Film and animation do use facial features for their characters but use other techniques to show emotion in a scene.
Shigatsu wa Kimi no Uso/Your Lie In April
This anime is about a boy who lost the ability to hear his own music after his mother died when he was young. After two years he found someone who made him interested in music again. This scene is in the last episode where something happens to one of the characters. This scene uses different colours to express the feelings of the characters to each other. The dominant colour of the scene and throughout the entire series is yellow. In western society, yellow means happiness and joy whereas in Japan where the animation is created it means courage and beauty. Blue is another dominant colour in the scene, in Japan blue means everyday life, meaning they want to spend every day with each other. The lighting of the scene also affects the mood because it starts off really bright and ends in darkness.
Lion King is a movie that was produced by Disney in 1994. The story is based on the Shakespeare Hamlet.
This scene uses lighting to add emotion to it. The scene is quite dark, it starts off bright when Simba thought he was getting a surprise to make people excited to see his “surprise”. But when the stampede came over the hill the scene became dark to
- Graphics Tablet
- Adobe Flash/Animate
I hope to create simple animations and adjust the colour and other features of the animation to change the mood.
On week five, we continued experimenting with our chosen areas. While experimenting I found out that animation takes a long time to do. I knew it would but did not expect it to take as long as it did.
This was the effort of one week worth of animating with Adobe Flash/Animate while using a graphics tablet. If I had the time to finish it I would experiment with changing the colours of the characters and lighting to get fear and emotions across to the audience. The reason I do not finish it was because I wanted to show how long it can take to create an animation using this method and software. Also, I wanted to show off you can learn mutiple and differnet things while experimenting.
How to research
For this task, we learnt arrange of new research techniques to prepare ourselves for our Final Major Project. We learnt about features that Google has implemented to make researching easier. We then had to research Skateboards because it was a neutral subject to us and after we completed the skateboard research task, we could research any subject we wanted.
Interview for Final Major Project
The purpose of the interviews was to gather an understanding of what we wanted to do for our Final Major Projects. Also, to make us think what we want to do after we finished this course. We had to interview and get interviewed by a member of another course (Games Group A- Ross Presland-Brown).